Test Case xhtml1_wcag2_20050630_4.1_l3_sc1_010: Validity error: table body before table heading

Formal Metadata

Formal Metadata
TitleValidity error: table body before table heading
DescriptionAn XHTML file that is well-formed but not valid because the tbody element appears before the thead element in the table instead of after it. It is not clear how assistive technology responds to this; possibly, the table heading is still read before the content of the table.
CreatorBenToWeb (Christophe.Strobbe@…)
RightsCopyright BenToWeb 2004-2007
Statusaccepted for end user evaluation

Technologies and Features

Technologies are markup languages or data formats. If the technology is a markup language, “features” refers to elements and attributes.

XHTML™ 1.0 The Extensible HyperText Markup Language (Second Edition)

XHTML™ 1.0 The Extensible HyperText Markup Language (Second Edition)

Feature: table (namespace: http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml) .

Technical specification: Strictly Conforming Documents .

Test Data


This test case is intended to fail because the table heading (thead) does not appear in its correct place in the markup. It is not clear if this causes problems for assistive technologies.

Test Modes

End user.

Test Files

Test file.


xhtml1_wcag2_20050630_4.1_l3_sc1_010 (XML).


“Rules” refer to success criteria in WCAG 2.0, checkpoints in WCAG 1.0 and similar requirements.

Primary Rules

The test case fails the following success criterion at line 61, column 3: http://www.w3.org/WAI/GL/WCAG20/WD-WCAG20-20050211/#4.1_use-spec-avoid-spec-no-exception.

Functional Outcome

Depending on the browser or assistive technology, the user may not be able to access the column headers before the table content.